When you think of sustainability, what comes to mind? Immediately, my brain imagines vast collections of plastic in the ocean and carbon emissions from millions of cars. I’m guessing that, like me, you didn’t think about optimizing the synthesis of chemical reactions to reduce toxicity or energy usage. Although we’re often focused on the more visible forms of waste, sustainability applies to an enormous range of human activities.
Promega is committed to integrating the principles of sustainability across all aspects of our business. One recent area of focus for our PBI branch is a shift toward Green Chemistry. PBI synthesizes reagents and small molecules used in Promega products. After deciding “it was the right thing to do for our customers and for the environment,” the leader of Promega’s Corporate Responsibility Program, Corey Meek, assembled a few individuals to start a conversation about implementing Green Chemistry principles.
“It was the right thing to do for our customers and for the environment.”
Last year, on Promega’s 40th anniversary, we received a generous gift from a friend in the industry: Eppendorf. That gift was an exchange program. The teenage child of any Promega employee was given the opportunity to visit an Eppendorf family in another country, and in return host the Eppendorf family’s child in their home. The goal was for both children to experience another culture and build a relationship with each other.
In 2019, 11 Promega children bid good-bye to their parents,
hopped on a plane, and flew to Germany. There they would stay for three weeks with
a family they’ve never met. For all involved, it proved to be a valuable and
positive learning opportunity. Here are a few takeaways from their experience:
The three 2019 Real-Time PCR Grant Winners have been hard at work in the six months since winning their grants. Each winner was eligible to receive up to $10,000 in free PCR reagents as well as the opportunity to collaborate with our knowledgeable technical service and training teams.
One of the 2019 winners, Alberto Biscontin (University of Padova, Italy), performs research in the fields of Neurogenetics and Chronobiology. He is looking to shed greater light on the circadian rhythms of the Antarctic krill. Alberto published his most recent analysis in Nature and GoTaq® qPCR Master Mix helped him validate expression of genes for his study.
His qPCR data showed support for internal mechanisms that not only support daily living but also clarified the overwintering process of the krill. Now that Alberto has sized up some zooplankton, we asked him to share a little more about himself and his research:
Q: How long have you been a researcher? A: I have been a researcher since 2012.
Q: How did you decide to research Antarctic krill? A: In 2013, I had the opportunity to join the international Antarctic research program PolarTime. [It] brought together eight research groups with different scientific expertise to study seasonal and daily rhythms in the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba.
Q: When you are not busy at the bench, what do you like to do? A: Traveling. I love strolling through open-air markets.
Q: Are there any tips or tricks you have learned that make your job easier? A: You can easily switch from a classic RT-PCR protocol to a cheaper and faster One-step protocol using the same primers and temperatures.
Q: What comes next? A: I would like to characterize the clock machinery of other polar organisms to understand whether high latitude clocks have developed similar strategies to cope with [the] polar environment. Moreover, a better understanding of marine circadian clocks could help to shed light on the evolution of the animal circadian machinery.
You can find Alberto’s most recent publication in Nature Scientific Reports. The 2020 Real-Time PCR Grant will be coming soon. For more information on the 2019 winners and information on the 2020 Grant, visit the Real-Time Grant web page. Be sure to follow us on social media for the most up-to-date information regarding the 2020 Grant, including application deadlines and winner notifications!
One of the easiest methods for cloning blunt-ended DNA fragments including PCR products is T-vector cloning, such as with pGEM®-T or pGEM®-T Easy Vector Systems. This method takes advantage of the “A” overhang added by a PCR enzyme like Taq DNA Polymerase. T vectors are linearized plasmids that have been treated to add 3′ T overhangs to match the A overhangs of the insert. The insert is directly ligated to the T-tailed plasmid vector with T4 DNA ligase. The insert can then be easily transferred from the T vector to other plasmids using the restriction sites present in the multiple cloning region of the T vector.
Proofreading polymerases like Pfu do not add “A” overhangs so PCR products generated with these polymerases are blunt-ended. In a previous blog, we discussed a simple method for adding an A-tail to any blunt-ended DNA fragment to enable T-vector cloning. Below, we think about the next step: Ligation.
Understanding the expression, function and dynamics of
proteins in their native environment is a fundamental goal that’s common to
diverse aspects of molecular and cell biology. To study a protein, it must
first be labeled—either directly or indirectly—with a “tag” that allows
specific and sensitive detection.
Using a labeled antibody to the protein of interest is a
common method to study native proteins. However, antibody-based assays, such as
ELISAs and Western blots, are not suitable for use in live cells. These
techniques are also limited by throughput and sensitivity. Further, suitable
antibodies may not be available for the target protein of interest.
Science touches our lives, daily. But far too many scientific concepts and terms are misunderstood and used incorrectly. Even those of us wearing a “scientist” badge sometimes misappropriate terms, which can act to reproduce the misuse.
A basic level of science literacy is so important for all of us. Why? So that when bombarded with comments about vaccination or climate change on a social media site, we are able to sift through the jargon, understand what’s correct and what is not correct, and make decision based in facts vs. internet gossip. With just a bit of knowledge of basic science terms, you are better protected against deception and you’ll know how to sort facts from fiction.
Here are a few general science terms that are commonly misunderstood and misused.
Promega created a special incentive to reward field science consultants who help the scientific community via the Helix onsite stocking program. The winner had to meet ambitious criteria to receive 2 round-trip tickets to anywhere in the world, as well as a week of paid vacation and spending money. I won and choose to use my award to travel to Switzerland. Here is the story of my amazing trip!
This blog is written by guest blogger, Caitlin Cavanaugh.
Since I was a little girl, my parents have often reminisced about one of their favorite overseas trips taken to Switzerland in 1977. This was a trip that my parents term “BC”, which in our house refers to their fun, childless married days “Before Caitlin.” They’ve shared their photos many times of the snow capped mountains and lush, green valleys. The Swiss Alps look very different from peaks in the US, with their steep, jagged peaks and clear, blue lakes. As a nature lover and an avid hiker, I knew this would be the perfect destination to realize my love for the outdoors and to follow in the footsteps of my parents—42 years later.
This is part 3 of a three-part series on FFPE sample processing. Part 1 (link) Part 2 (link)
I would like to automate FFPE processing, but I am worried about sample cross contamination, how can I minimize my risks?
As a gold standard for oncology research, hundreds of millions of FFPE samples are collected and banked worldwide. These samples provide a rich source of data for identification of biomarkers in the search for early detection assays for cancer as well as diagnostics that could help direct treatment decisions and monitor treatment.
PCR amplification with a proofreading polymerase, like Pfu DNA polymerase, will leave you with a blunt end. However, another thermostable DNA polymerase, like Taq DNA Polymerase, adds a single nucleotide base to the 3’ end of the DNA fragment, usually an adenine, creating an “A” overhang. This “A” overhang can create difficulties when cloning the fragment is your end goal. You might consider creating a blunt end with Klenow or adding restriction sites to the ends of your PCR fragment by designing them in your primers. But why go through all those extra steps, when that “A” overhang allows efficient cloning of these fragments into T-Vectors such as the pGEM®-T Vectors? Fewer steps? Who can argue with that?
Wildlife conservation is a major focus around the world. With habitat loss and climate change, Asian elephant populations are under severe pressure. Add in an infectious disease that is fatal to the young and you have a recipe for disaster. Even with efforts to breed the endangered Asian elephants in zoos to build the population, elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) thwarts conservation efforts. EEHV causes hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants younger than 10 years old, a disease with rapid onset and high mortality. In fact, some numbers indicate EEHV is the cause of death for at least 25% of Asian elephants born in zoos and the wild globally.