PCR Cloning: Answers to Some Frequently Asked Questions

eh1Q: What is the easiest way to clone PCR Products?

A: The simplest way to clone PCR Products is to amplify the product using thermostable polymerases such as Taq, Tfl or Tth polymerase. These polymerases add a single deoxyadenosine to the 3´-end of the amplified products (3´-end overhang), and can be cloned directly into a linearized T-vector.

Q: What if my DNA polymerase has 3´ to 5´ exonuclease activity (i.e., proofreading activity) that removes the 3´-end overhang?

A: To clone PCR products that have been amplified with a polymerase that have proof reading activity into a T-vector, you will need to perform an A-tailing step using Taq DNA polymerase and dATP. Blunt ended restriction digest fragments can also be A-tailed using this method. The method below uses GoTaq Flexi DNA Polymerase (comes with a Mg-free reaction buffer), but any Taq DNA polymerase can be used.

Set up the following reaction in a thin-walled PCR tube:

1–4µl purified blunt-ended DNA fragment (from PCR or restriction enzyme digestion)
2µl of 5X GoTaq Reaction Buffer (Colorless or Green)
2µl of 1mM dATP (0.2mM final concentration)
1µl GoTaq Flexi DNA Polymerase (5u/µl)
0.6µl of 25mM MgCl2 (1.5mM final concentration)
Nuclease-free water to a final volume of 10µl

Incubate at 70°C for 15–30 minutes in a water bath or thermal cycler.

Q: What is a T-vector, and why are they used for cloning PCR products?

A: T vectors are linearized plasmids that have been treated to add T overhangs to match the A overhangs of the PCR product. PCR fragments that contain an A overhang can be directly ligated to these T-tailed plasmid vectors with no need for further enzymatic treatment other than the action of T4 DNA ligase.

For a complete PCR Cloning protocol, Visit the Cloning Chapter of the Promega Protocols and Applications Guide.

Choosing Your Subcloning Strategy

Before you begin your subcloning, you need to know: The restriction enzyme (RE) sites available for subcloning in your parent vector multiple cloning region (or in the insert if you need to digest the insert); the RE sites available in the destination vector multiple cloning region (MCR); and if these same sites also occur in your insert. Once you know this information, you can use the chart below to decide which subcloning strategy to use.


To learn more about subcloning, visit our Subcloning Notebook.

Get More Out of Your Lentiviral Production

fugene6_lvv_blogThis review is a guest blog by Amy Landreman, Product Specialist in Cellular Analysis at Promega Corporation.

Lentiviral vectors (LVV) have become a valuable research tool for delivering genetic content into a wide range of cell types. Commonly derived from the HIV-1 genome, LVV have the advantage of being able to infect both dividing and non-dividing cells. They can be particularly valuable for introducing genetic material into cell lines that are difficult to transfect using other methods and are also being used in gene therapy applications.

Unlike other gene delivery tools, transducing mammalian cells with LVV requires significant upfront effort since the LVV particles carrying the desired genetic content first need to be created. In general this involves co-transfecting a packaging cell line, such as HEK293T, with a set of three to four separate plasmids that encode the protein content required to generate the LVV particles: the transfer plasmid, which contains the transgene of interest, a packaging plasmid, and an envelope plasmid. After co-transfection, the packaging cell line is allowed to incubate for a couple of days during which time the LVV particles are produced and accumulating in the culture supernatant. The supernatant containing the recombinant LVV is then harvested and, following several concentration steps, the LVV particles are ready to be used for introducing the desired genetic content into the mammalian target cells. Continue reading “Get More Out of Your Lentiviral Production”

Successful Ligation and Cloning of Your Insert

Ligation and cloning

You have PCR amplified your insert of interest, made sure the PCR product is A tailed and are ready to clone into a T vector (e.g., pGEM®-T Easy Vector). The next step is as simple as mixing a few microliters of your purified product with the cloning vector in the presence of DNA ligase, buffer and ATP, right? In fact, you may need to consider the molar ratio of T vector to insert.

Continue reading “Successful Ligation and Cloning of Your Insert”

Troubleshooting T-Vector Cloning

Why do few of my pGEM®-T or pGEM®-T Easy Vector clones contain the PCR product of interest?

There are several possible reasons why the PCR product may not be recovered after ligation, bacterial transformation and plating when using the pGEM®-T or pGEM®-T Easy Vector Systems.

The PCR fragment may not be A-tailed. Without the A overhangs, the PCR product cannot be ligated into a T vector. Use a nonproofreading DNA polymerase like GoTaq® DNA Polymerase for PCR. If a proofreading DNA polymerase is used, A overhangs will need to be added. Purify the PCR fragment, and set up an A-tailing reaction (see the pGEM®-T and pGEM®-T Easy Vector Systems Technical Manual #TM042). The A-tailed product can be added directly to the ligation as described in the pGEM®-T or pGEM®-T Easy Vector protocol.

The insert:vector ratio may not be optimal. The ideal ratio for each insert to a vector can vary. For example, the Control Insert DNA works well at a 1:1 ratio, but another insert may be ligated more efficiently at a 3:1 ratio. Check the integrity and quantity of your PCR fragment by gel analysis. Optimize the insert:vector ratio (see Technical Manual #TM042).

Multiple PCR products were amplified and cloned into the pGEM®-T or pGEM®-T Easy Vector. Other amplification products including primer dimers will compete for ligation into the T vector, decreasing the possibility that the desired insert will be cloned. To minimize other competing products, gel purify the PCR fragment of interest.

Promega Technical Services Scientists are here to assist you in troubleshooting your experiments at any time. Contact Technical Services.

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Efficient Cloning and Expression of High Protein Yields Using KRX Cells

Escherichia coli remains the first choice of many researchers for producing recombinant protein for functional studies due to its ease of use, well established protocols, rapid cell growth and low cost of culturing. Researchers often need to clone using an E. coli host with good transformation characteristics first, then transfer the desired clone to the expression host. We have developed a new E. coli host KRX, that provides protein yields comparable to those of BL21(DE3) but with much higher transformation efficiencies. Continue reading “Efficient Cloning and Expression of High Protein Yields Using KRX Cells”