One of the most critical parts of a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) workflow is library preparation and nearly all NGS library preparation methods use some type of size-selective purification. This process involves removing unwanted fragment sizes that will interfere with downstream library preparation steps, sequencing or analysis.
Different applications may involve removing undesired enzymes and buffers or removal of nucleotides, primers and adapters for NGS library or PCR sample cleanup. In dual size selection methods, large and small DNA fragments are removed to ensure optimal library sizing prior to final sequencing. In all cases, accurate size selection is key to obtaining optimal downstream performance and NGS sequencing results.
Current methods and chemistries for the purposes listed above have been in use for several years; however, they are utilized at the cost of performance and ease-of-use. Many library preparation methods involve serial purifications which can result in a loss of DNA. Current methods can result in as much as 20-30% loss with each purification step. Ultimately this may necessitate greater starting material, which may not be possible with limited, precious samples, or the incorporation of more PCR cycles which can result in sequencing bias. Sample-to-sample reproducibility is a daily challenge that is also regularly cited as an area for improvement in size-selection.
This the last in a series of four blogs about Quantitation for NGS is written by guest blogger Adam Blatter, Product Specialist in Integrated Solutions at Promega.
When it comes to nucleic acid quantitation, real-time or quantitative (qPCR) is considered the gold standard because of its unmatched performance in senstivity, specificity and accuracy. qPCR relies on thermal cycling, consisting of repeated cycles of heating an cooling for DNA melting and enzyamtic replication. Detection instrumentation is capable of measuring the accumulation of DNA product after each round of amplification in real time.
Because PCR amplifies specific regions of DNA, the method is highly sensitive, specific to DNA, and it can determine whether a sample is truly able to be amplified. Degraded DNA or free nucleotides, which might otherwise skew your quantiation, will not contribute to the signal, and your measurement will be more accurate.
However, while qPCR does provide technical advantages, the method requires special instrumentation, specialized reagents and is a more time-consuming process. In addition, you will probably need to optimize your qPCR assay for each of your targets to achieve your desired results.
Because of the added complexity and cost, qPCR is a technique suited for post-library quantitation when you need to know the exact amount of amplifiable, adapter-ligated DNA. PCR is the only method capable of specifically targeting these library constructs over other DNA that may be present. This specificity is important because accurate normalization is especially critical for producing even coverage in multiplex experiments where equimolar amounts of several libraries are added to a pooled sample. This normalization process is essential if your are screening for rare variants that might be lost in background and go undetected if underrepresented in a mixed pool.