Increasing Drug Research and Development Efficiency Using a 4-point Screening Method to Determine Molecular Mechanism of Action

Fig 4. Four point MMOA screen for tideglusib and GW8510. Time dependent inhibition was evaluated by preincubation of TbGSK3β with 60 nM tideglusib and 6 nM GW-8510 with 10μM and 100μM ATP. (A). Tideglusib [60 nM] in 10μM ATP. (B). GW8510 [60 nM] in 10μM ATP. (C.) Tideglusib [60 nM] at 100μM ATP. (D.) GW8510 [60 nM] at 100μM ATP. All reactions preincubated or not preincubated with TbGSK3β for 30 min at room temperature. Experiments run with 10μM GSM peptide, 10μM ATP, and buffer. Minute preincubation (30 min) was preincubated with inhibitor, TbGSK3β, GSM peptide, and buffer. ATP was mixed to initiate reaction. No preincubation contained inhibitor, GSM peptide, ATP, and buffer. The reaction was initiated with TbGSK3β. Reactions were run at room temperature for 5 min and stopped at 80°C. ADP formed was measured by ADP-Glo kit. Values are mean +/- standard error. N = 3 for each experiment and experiments were run in duplicates. Control reactions contained DMSO and background was determined using a zero time incubation and subtracted from all reactions. Black = 30 min preincubation Grey = No preincubation.

Four point MMOA screen for tideglusib and GW8510.
Time dependent inhibition was evaluated by preincubation of TbGSK3β with 60 nM tideglusib and 6 nM GW-8510 with 10μM and 100μM ATP. (A). Tideglusib [60 nM] in 10μM ATP. (B). GW8510 [60 nM] in 10μM ATP. (C.) Tideglusib [60 nM] at 100μM ATP. (D.) GW8510 [60 nM] at 100μM ATP. All reactions preincubated or not preincubated with TbGSK3β for 30 min at room temperature.  Black = 30 min preincubation Grey = No preincubation.

The first small-molecule kinase inhibitor approved as a cancer therapeutic, imatinib mesylate (Gleevec® treatment), has been amazingly successful. However, a thorough understanding of its molecular mechanism of action (MMOA) was not truly obtained until more than ten years after the molecule had been identified.

Understanding the MMOA for a small-molecule inhibitor can play a major role in optimizing a drug’s development. The way a drug actually works–the kinetics of binding to the target molecule and how it competes with endogenous substrates of that target–ultimately determines whether or not a a candidate therapeutic can be useful in the clinic. Drugs that fail late in development are extremely costly.

Drug research and discovery for neglected tropical diseases suffer from a lack of a large commercial market to absorb the costs of late-stage drug development failures. It becomes very important to know as much as possible, simply and quickly, about MMOA for candidate molecules for these diseases that are devastating to large populations.

One such neglected topical disease is Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness). Continue reading

Customized Kinase Selectivity Profiling Just Got Easier

11296971-DC-CR-KinaseOff-target activities of target compounds can become costly if they aren’t discovered until late in the drug research and discovery process. Therefore, knowing the inhibitory profile of your test compounds across a broad collection of kinases as quickly as possible is highly desirable.

However, screening against many kinases at once requires a universal platform that is still sensitive enough to detect inhibitor activity and assess selectivity and potency on kinases of different classes. The luminescent ADP-Glo™ Kinase Assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of ADP produced during a kinase reaction.

We have used the ADP-Glo™ Chemistry to develop highly sensitive assays for more than 170 kinases across the human kinome and further enhanced the assays for ease-of-use by developing the Kinase Selectivity Profiling Systems. These systems provide an easy-to-use, reliable platform for kinase inhibitor profiling in house.

And even better, we now provide an online Kinase Profiling System Designer so that you can design a custom Kinase Selectivity Profiling System to fit your exact experimental needs. Simply drag and drop the combination of kinases you need to create an 8-kinase strip and submit your order. Continue reading

Shining a Bright Light on Deep Questions in Biology with Bioluminescence

artists view inside a cellA quick search of the PubMed database for “dual luciferase” quickly returns over 1,000 papers. The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay is a powerful tool that allows researchers to ask a multitude of questions about gene control and expression in a system that itself could be normalized and internally controlled. For more than 15 years, firefly and Renilla luciferases have been valuable tools for researchers asking many different kinds of questions in the life sciences. In a recent webinar, Biologically Relevant Assays for Oncology: Harnessing the Power of Bioluminescence, Neal Cosby discussed how bioluminescent chemistries have formed the basis of a range of powerful assays and research tools for scientists who are asking questions about the deep and complex genetic and cellular story associated with cancer. Here we talk a bit of about bioluminescent chemistries, some of the newest bioluminescent tools available, and how some of these tools can be used to probe the deeper questions of cell biology, including cancer biology. Continue reading