In the CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System, the pBIND Vector contains the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain upstream of a multiple cloning region, and the pACT Vector contains the herpes simplex virus VP16 activation domain upstream of a multiple cloning region. The two genes encoding the two potentially interactive proteins of interest are cloned into pBIND and pACT Vectors to generate fusion proteins with the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and the activation domain of VP16, respectively. The pG5luc Vector contains five GAL4 binding sites upstream of a minimal TATA box, which in turn, is upstream of the firefly luciferase gene (luc+). The pGAL4 and pVP16 fusion constructs are transfected along with pG5luc Vector into mammalian cells. Interaction between the two test proteins, as GAL4 and VP16 fusion constructs, results in an increase in firefly luciferase expression over the negative controls. Traditionally mammalian two hybrid analysis was used to confirm initial data obtained from yeast two hybrid experiments.
Due to enhanced bioinformatics information and the development of improved co-immunoprecipiation/pulldown procedures/technology, there is a growing trend to use only mammalian cells to characterize protein:protein interactions. The following references illustrate the use of the CheckMate™ system to complement other techniques to characterize protein;protein interactions using only mammalian cells .
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