Why You Don’t Need to Select a Wavelength for a Luciferase Assay

It’s a question I’m asked probably once a week. “What wavelength do I select on my luminometer when performing a luciferase assay?” The question is a good and not altogether unexpected one, especially for those new to bioluminescent assays. The answer is that in most cases, you don’t and in fact shouldn’t select a wavelength (the exception to this rule is if you’re measuring light emitted in two simultaneous luciferase reactions). To understand why requires a bit of an explanation of absorbance, fluorescence, and luminescence assays, and the differences among them.

Absorbance, fluorescence, and luminescence assays are all means to quantify something of interest, be that a genetic reporter, cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, or other markers. In principle, they are all similar. For example, a genetic reporter assay is an indicator of gene expression. The promoter of a gene of interest can be cloned upstream of a reporter such as β-galactosidase, GFP, or firefly luciferase. The amount of each of these reporters that is transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein by the cell is indicative of the endogenous expression of the gene of interest. Continue reading “Why You Don’t Need to Select a Wavelength for a Luciferase Assay”

Dual-Luciferase or Dual-Glo Luciferase Assay System? Which one should I choose for my reporter assays?

Confused womanI’ve got a set of experiments planned that, if all goes well, will provide me with the answer I have been seeking for months. Plus, my supervisor is eagerly awaiting the results because she needs the data for a grant application, so I don’t want to mess it up. However, I am faced with a choice for my firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter assays: Do I use the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System or Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System? What’s the difference? How do I decide which to use? I’m so confused! Help!

Sound familiar? Not to worry! The choice is not difficult once you know how these assays work and how they differ.
Continue reading “Dual-Luciferase or Dual-Glo Luciferase Assay System? Which one should I choose for my reporter assays?”

To inject or not inject?

GloMax® Discover Multimode Reader with injectors.
GloMax® Discover Multimode Reader with injectors.

Luciferase assays are useful tools for studying a wide range of biological questions. They can be performed easily by adding a reagent that provides components necessary to generate a luminescent signal directly to cells or a cell lysate. However, once this reagent has been added, how long you wait to measure the signal becomes a key consideration in generating consistent data. Dependent on which luciferase assay you use, you may need a luminometer that can use injectors to deliver the assay reagents. The reason for this is simple, but can be confusing to new users.

Let’s start by discussing two types of luciferase assays: “flash” vs. “glow”. Continue reading “To inject or not inject?”

Characterizing IRES Elements using Cell-Based and Cell-Free Expression Systems

A IRES (internal ribosome entry site) is a nucleotide sequence that allows for the translation initiation in the middle of a message RNA sequence as part of the greater process of protein synthesis. Typically an IRES is located in the 5’ UTR of RNA viruses and enables translation of the RNAs in a cap-independent manner. (1,2)
Evaluating a particular RNA sequence for IRES activity relies on designing a bicistronic report construct. When an IRES segment is located between two reporter gene (e.g., Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [CAT] and Luciferase) open reading frames, it can drive translation of the downstream protein coding region independently from the 5´ cap structure bound to the 5´ end of the mRNA (3,4,5). Continue reading “Characterizing IRES Elements using Cell-Based and Cell-Free Expression Systems”