The trypsin protease cleaves proteins on the carboxyterminus of Arginine (Arg) and Lysine (Lys). This cleavage reaction leaves a positive charge on the C-terminus of the resulting peptide, which enhances mass spectrometry analysis (1,2). Because of this advantage, trypsin has become the most commonly used protease for mass spectrometry analysis. Other proteases which cleave differently from trypsin, yielding complementary data are also used in mass spec analysis: these include Asp-N and Glu-C , which cleave acidic residues, and chymotrypsin which cleaves at aromatic residues. The broad spectrum protease, proteinase K is also used for some proteomic analyses. In a recent study, Dau and colleagues investigated whether sequential digestion with trypsin followed by the complementary proteases could improve protein digests for mass spectrometry analysis.Continue reading “How Can You Improve Protein Digests for Mass Spectrometry Analysis?”
Glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to target macromolecules, typically proteins. This modification serves various functions including guiding protein folding (1,2), promoting protein stability (2), and participating signaling functions (3).
SARS-CoV-2 utilizes an extensively glycosylated spike (S) protein that protrudes from the viral surface to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to mediate host-cell entry. Vaccine development has been focused on this protein, which is the focus of the humoral immune response. Understanding the glycan structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike (S) protein will be critical in the development of glycoprotine-based vaccine candidates.Continue reading “Understanding the Structure of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein”