Cancer cells can be distinguished from normal cells by a variety of features including their ability to inappropriately activate signals for cell proliferation, evade growth suppression from contact inhibition or tumor suppressor activity, evade cell death signals, replicate DNA continually, induce angiogenesis, invade new tissues, reprogram their metabolism to provide energy for rapid proliferation, and evade immune detection (1) . Several biological processes are responsible for these features including genomic instability, inflammation, and the creation of a tumor microenvironment.
The tumor microenvironment is the network of non-malignant cells, connective tissue and blood vessels that surround and infiltrate the tumor. These surrounding “normal” cells interact with each other and the cancer cells and are important players in tumorigenesis. One cell type that is often found in the tumor microenvironment are nerve cells. In fact, cancer cells often express proteins that encourage nerve growth into the tumor microenvironment such as growth factors and axon-guidance molecules (2). Crosstalk between nerve cells and tumor cells can facilitate development of several cancer types (2) including pancreatic, head and neck, oral, prostate, and colorectal cancers.Continue reading “Conversations: Nerve-Tumor Crosstalk in the Tumor Microenvironment”