In recent years following the COVID-19 pandemic, RNA has gained attention for its successes and potential use in vaccines and therapeutics. One avenue of interest in RNA research is a non-coding class of RNA first identified almost 50 years ago, circular RNA (circRNA).
In 1976, Sanger et al. first identified circRNA in plant viroids, and later additions to the field found them in mice, humans, nematodes, and other groups. Unlike linear RNA, circRNA are covalently closed loops that don’t have a 5′ cap or 3′ polyadenylated tail. Following its discovery, researchers thought circRNA was the product of a rare splicing event caused by an error in mRNA formation leading to low interest in researching the subject (1).
In the early 2010s, following the development of high throughput RNA sequencing technology, Salzman et al. determined that circRNAs were not a result of misplicing, but a stable, conserved, and widely sourced form of RNA with biological importance. Since noncoding RNA makes up the majority of the transcriptome it’s an incredibly important field of study. We now recognize circRNAs for their potential as disease biomarkers and importance in researching human disease (2).
Model organisms are essential tools in the pursuit of understanding biological processes, elucidating the mechanisms of diseases, and developing potential treatments and therapies. Use of these organisms in scientific research has paved the way for groundbreaking discoveries across various fields of biology. In particular, non-mammalian models can be valuable due to characteristics such as rapid life cycles, low cost, and amenability to use with advanced genetic tools, including bioluminescent reporters such as NanoLuc® Luciferase.
NanoLuc® is a small (19.1 kDa) luciferase enzyme originating from deep sea shrimp that is 100x brighter than firefly or Renilla luciferase. It utilizes a furimazine substrate to produce its bright glow-type luminescence. In the decade following its development, the NanoLuc® toolbox has expanded to include NanoBiT® complementation, NanoBRET™ energy transfer methods, and new reagents such as the Nano-Glo® Fluorofurimazine In Vivo Substrate (FFz) which was designed for in vivo detection of NanoLuc® Luciferase, NanoLuc® fusion proteins or reconstituted NanoBiT® Luciferase. In addition to the aqueous-soluble reagents increased substrate bioavailability in vivo, with fluorofurimazine, NanoLuc® and firefly luciferase can be used together in dual-luciferase molecular imaging studies.
Here we spotlight some recent research that demonstrates how the expanded NanoLuc® toolbox can be adapted to use in non-mammalian models, shedding new light on fundamental biological processes and advancing our understanding of complex mechanisms in these diverse organisms.
Microblogging is a form of blogging characterized by a shortened format and frequent posting schedule. Instead of personal websites, microblogs reside on social media platforms or apps, making them accessible to interact with and post on smartphones. Microblogs focus on interacting with audiences directly. With the ability to reply to or repost content, microblogging is more conversational and collaborative with audiences than long-form writing.
After its founding in 2006, Twitter (recently renamed “X” by its new owner) quickly became the face of microblogging platforms. Users publish content to the platform in posts of 280 characters that can include images, gifs, videos, and what the platform is most known for: hashtags. Hashtags enable users to search the platform by topic to connect with or follow other users who are writing about those topics. Users can also interact with each other by liking or retweeting tweets, which posts them to their own account. The open forum discussion style makes it possible for individuals to share their stories, offering first-hand accounts of breaking news and fueling political movements such as the Women’s March and Black Lives Matter.
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