Molecular Autopsies in the Whole Genome Sequencing Era

Engraving of the human heart by T. Milton, 1814. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Engraving of the human heart by T. Milton, 1814. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Every year, nearly 8 million people die from sudden cardiac death, which is defined as the unexpected death of a seemingly healthy person due to malfunctions in the heart’s electrical system and loss of cardiac function. Although sudden cardiac death (SCD) is usually associated with mature adults, SCD claims thousands of young lives every year. In most cases, the cause of death can be determined by autopsy or toxicological analysis, but up to 30% of these premature deaths have no apparent cause, leaving medical examiners and family members of the young victims to wonder what happened.

In cases where traditional pathological examinations cannot provide insight into causation, medical examiners are increasingly turning to molecular autopsies to determine if there is an underlying genetic factor that contributed to a person’s death.

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Simplifying Next Generation Sequencing Workflow with QuantiFluor® ds-DNA System

DNA SequenceNext-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput parallel sequencing, is the all-encompassing term used to describe a number of different modern sequencing technologies. These include Illumina (Solexa) sequencing, Roche 454 sequencing, Ion torrent: Proton / PGM sequencing and SOLiD sequencing to name a few [1].

With the advent of these technologies sequencing DNA and RNA has become much more facile and affordable in comparison to the previously used Sanger sequencing. For these reasons NGS has been the game-changer in the field of modern genomics and molecular biology.

A common starting point for template preparation for NGS platforms is random fragmentation of target DNA and addition of platform-specific adapter sequences to flanking ends. Protocols typically use sonication to shear input DNA, coupled with several rounds of enzymatic modification to produce a sequencer-ready product [2].

Accurate quantification of DNA preparations is essential to ensure high-quality reads and efficient generation of data. Too much DNA can lead to issues such as mixed signals, un-resolvable data and lower number of single reads. Too little DNA, on the other hand, might result in insufficient sequencing coverage, reduced read depth or empty runs, all of which would incur higher costs. The quality of DNA can also vary depending on the source or extraction method applied and further reinforces the need for appropriate management of the input material. Continue reading “Simplifying Next Generation Sequencing Workflow with QuantiFluor® ds-DNA System”

Learning About the $1,000 Genome

Personalized MedicineAt the recent International Symposium on Human Identification, Kevin Davies, the keynote speaker and author of The $1,000 Genome, entertained attendees with a history of human genome sequencing efforts and discussed ways in which the resulting information has infiltrated our everyday lives. Obviously, there is enough material on the subject to fill a book, but I will describe just a few of the high points of his talk here.

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