Here we continue our “month of little things” (#NanoLuc) with a deep sea angler fish (though in the video she doesn’t look so little). This female measures a mere 9cm long and uses a bioluminescent fishing lure (modified dorsal fin) to attract unsuspecting prey toward her gaping jaws. This video from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is thought to be the first live footage of this species at this depth. Enjoy! In the deep, dark depths of the ocean it’s a little light that makes a difference.
This month we are celebrating a small thing—NanoLuc® luciferase, an enzyme whose tiny size and bright luminescence enable much more sensitive detection of intracellular events than other bioluminescent reporters. Scaling down the size of the luciferase protein makes it “fit” in situations where larger reporters do not, and also makes it less likely to interfere with natural biology than larger proteins. Scaling up the brightness allows you to detect the reporter at low abundance, enhancing sensitivity and allowing detection of small changes in gene expression at concentrations closer to physiological levels.
These properties of Nanoluc® luciferase allow its bioluminescence to be used to detect intracellular events in ways not possible before. One example of how this small size and intense brightness are being applied to help solve biological problems is the insertion of NanoLuc® luciferase into influenza viruses, where the genome size is small and does not tolerate large insertions. Unlike viruses incorporating larger luciferases, the influenza reporters incorporating NanoLuc® luciferase are stable, retain pathogenicity and are bright enough to track at low doses during the early stages of infection (1). You can find out more about the many applications of NanoLuc® luciferase here.
In the spirit of “celebrating small things” we will be sharing plenty of information about NanoLuc® applications over the next few weeks, and will also be highlighting other examples where “small” can be a beautiful thing. By definition, molecular biology is a study of the smallest building blocks of life, so it’s not hard to find an abundance of small things to talk about. We hope you will participate with us by commenting, liking or sharing posts, or by contributing your own ideas on little things that make a difference, or that just make you smile.
Here’s a list for starters—it includes examples from history and from last week where going smaller turned out to be both smarter and better for overcoming a variety of biological challenges. Continue reading “It’s the Little Things: Celebrating NanoLuc and Other Small Things”